Nutrition information and food supplement information
The information resource about Nutrients, Probiotics and Food Supplements

Trace Elements

A nutrient is any element or compound necessary for or contributing to an organism's metabolism, growth, or other functioning.

The discovery of the group of nutrients called phytonutrients reinforces the provisional nature of our knowledge. We know little about phytonutrients, organic compounds from plants which play an essential role in the normal functioning of a body and have complex hormonal effects on health or play an active role in the amelioration of disease. They are not fit readily into the scheme of the traditional nutrition categories.

Blood microscopy shows the effects of good nutrition.

Our 10 step good health guide is here


A clickable list of basic nutrients from A to Z

also known as
Arsenic AS
Biotin Vitamin H / Coenzyme R
Boron B
Calcium Ca - Alkaline earth metal
Carbohydrates often abbreviated as "CHO"
Carnitine L-b-hydroxy-g -N,N,N-trimethylaminobutyric acid
Carotenoids beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene
Chloride Cl - mostly NaCl (salt)
Choline Part of Lecithin
Chromium Cr
Copper Cu
Energy Calories & Joule
Folate Folic Acid - Folacin - Vitamin
Iodine I
Iron Fe
Lipids Fat and more
Magnesium Mg
Manganese Mn
Molybdenum Mo
Niacin (nicotinic acid or nicotinamide)
Nickel Ni
Pantothenic acid Vitamin B-Complex
Phosphorus P
Potassium Po
Protein polymers of amino acids
Riboflavin Vitamin B-2
Selenium Se
Silicon Si
Sodium Na
Vanadium V
Vitamin A Retinol
Vitamin B 12 Cobalamin
Vitamin B 6 pyridine, pyridoxal & pyridoxamine
Vitamin C Ascorbic acid
Vitamin D Cholecalciferol & Ergocalciferol [D2 & D3]
Vitamin E  
Vitamin K  
Zinc Zn

Numerous mineral elements have been suggested to be essential nutrients for humans based on a few gross observations in one or two species of animals by one or two research groups. Specific biochemical functions have not been defined for any of these elements. Most likely none of these mineral elements, which include the following, are of nutritional concern if intakes are near those in a typical, well-balanced diet.

Aluminum: Even without considering pharmaceutical sources, the typical daily dietary intake of aluminum varies widely, from 3 to 100 mg. Significant sources of aluminum include baked goods prepared with chemical leavening agents (i.e., baking powder), processed cheese, grains, vegetables, herbs and tea. Aluminum toxicity apparently is not a concern for healthy individuals.

Bromine: The typical daily dietary intake of bromine is 2 to 8 mg. Foods high in bromine are grains, nuts and fish. Bromine is normally ingested as the bromide ion which has a low degree of toxicity; thus bromine is not of toxicological concern in nutrition. Limited findings suggest that bromide may be nutritionally beneficial; (e.g., insomnia exhibited by some hemodialysis patients has been associated with bromide deficiency).

Cadmium: The typical daily dietary intake of cadmium is 10 to 20 g. Significant sources of cadmium include shellfish, grains and leafy vegetables. Cadmium has a long half-life in the body and thus high intakes can lead to accumulation resulting in damage in some organs, especially the kidney. The Reference Dose (RfD) (safe daily intake over a lifetime) for cadmium is 0.5 g per kg body weight.

Germanium: The typical daily dietary intake of germanium is 0.4 to 1.5 mg. Foods high in germanium include wheat bran, vegetables, and leguminous seeds. Some organic forms of germanium are less toxic than inorganic forms. Inorganic germanium toxicity results in kidney damage.

Lead: The typical daily dietary intake of lead is 15 to 100 g. Significant sources of lead include seafood and plant foodstuffs grown under high lead conditions. Although lead may have beneficial effects in small amounts, lead toxicity is of more concern than lead deficiency. Lead toxicity results in anemia, kidney damage and central nervous abnormalities. Ingestion of high amounts of lead from the environment by children, particularly when anemic, has been associated with reduced intelligence and impaired motor function.

Lithium: The typical daily dietary intake of lithium is 200 to 600 g. Rich sources of lithium include eggs, milk, processed meat, fish, milk, milk products, potatoes and vegetables. Lithium deficiency has been reported to result in depressed fertility and birth weight in rats and goats. Lithium is used as an anti-manic agent. Mild lithium toxicity- observed with anti-manic use - results in gastrointestinal disturbances, muscular weakness, tremor, drowsiness and a dazed feeling. Severe toxicity results in coma, muscle tremor, convulsions and even death.

Rubidium: The typical daily dietary intake of rubidium is 1 to 5 mg. Foods high in rubidium include coffee, black tea, fruits, vegetables (especially asparagus), poultry and fish. Rubidium is a relatively nontoxic element and has not show to be of toxicological concern from the nutritional point of view. Rubidium deficiency apparently depresses growth and life expectancy in goats.

Tin: The typical daily dietary intake of tin is 1 to 40 mg. A significant source of tin is canned foods. Inorganic tin is relatively nontoxic. Tin deficiency has been reported to depress growth in rats.